"Meeting the Challenge AIDS Poses for Criminal Justice Professionals." Cheri Crawford. Perspectives (Winter 1988): 6-7, 22.

Reviews the current and future works of the National Institute of Justice in publishing a series of reports on the problem of AIDS as it affects correctional systems across the country.

"Working Effectively With AIDS Cases on Probation." Arthur J. Lurigio, Karl A. Gudenberg, Arthur F. Spica. Perspectives (Spring 1988): 10-12, 15.

Examines recommendations for administrative policies and procedures for the effective supervision of probation and parole clients with AIDS.

"An Official Statement of the American Probation and Parole Association to The President's Commission on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic: AIDS Issues in Probation and Parole." Malcolm MacDonald. Perspectives (Summer 1988): 12-13.

Presents the official statement and recommendations of APPA to the President's Commission on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic.

"Proactive AIDS Policy Development: Requisite for Responsible Case Management." Marilyn B. Ayres, Linda J. Romano. Perspectives (Fall 1989): 12-15.

Outlines the major issues to be addressed by probation and parole agencies in developing their policies to foster a proactive response for the effective management and supervision of their HIV clients.

"Preparing for HIV in the Workplace: Employee Policies for Probation and Parole." Marilyn B. Ayres. Perspectives (Summer 1990): 18-22.

Examines suggested agency policies for probation and parole employees in dealing with HIV or AIDS in the workplace.

“Making the Right Connection: A Cost-Effective Prerelease Program for HIV Inmates.” Vicki Sanderford. Perspectives (Spring 1997): 45-47.

Discusses the Transitional Case Management Program that aids institutions with discharge

planning and HIV, tuberculosis and hepatitis B parolees with medical and social services in the community.


"APPA Organizational Position Statements." Adopted by the APPA Board of Directors. Perspectives (Spring 1987): 14-18.

Reprints of three position statements on Probation Pre-Sentence Investigations; Probation; and Parole.

"APPA Organizational Position Statements." Adopted by the APPA Board of Directors. Perspectives (Summer 1987): 6-7.

Drafts position statements on juveniles and privatization, which were referred to the Board of Directors of the American Probation and Parole Association by the Position Statements Committee of the APPA for consideration at their meeting in 1987.

"Probation and Parole Speaks Out: A Report on APPA's Membership Survey." Perspectives (Fall 1993): 44-45.

Reports on the results of survey questions regarding: major issues confronting community corrections; topics for training, Perspectives articles, and position statements; benefits members would like to receive; and the rating of Perspectives.

"Opportunities for Involvement for Members of the American Probation and Parole Association." Perspectives (Spring 1994): 29-34.

Provides answers to common questions about APPA costs, benefits, purpose and structure. Describes opportunities for becoming involved in APPA and the functions of APPA committees.

"APPA's Vision: Welcome to the Land of OZ...Where Dreams Can Come True." Perspectives (Spring 1995): 6-12.

Reports on the process and outcomes of APPA's visioning process involving over 2,000 community corrections practitioners. Suggests national and local implementation strategies for making the vision a reality.

"Vision adVentures - Lessons from Oz--The Building of a Yellow Brick Road for APPA." Carl Wicklund. Perspectives (Spring 1996): 14-15.

Announces APPA's draft mission statement and explains the development process.

"Vision adVentures - APPA's Vision and Logo are Merged." Perspectives (Spring 1996): 14.

Announces the new APPA logo and explains how it was developed.

"Beyond the Land of Oz -- Introducing APPA's Strategic Plan." Perspectives (Summer 1996): 19-21.

Describes the development process for APPA's strategic plan for the year 200 and beyond and how it relates to the Vision. Announces APPA's approved mission statement.

“APPA Position Statement--Conditional Early Release Program. Adopted by APPA Board of Directors. Perspectives (Fall 1997): 22.

APPA Position Statement on Conditional Early Release Programs. APPA does not support the early release program recommended by the ALEC.

"APPA Organizational Position Statements." Adopted by the APPA Board of Directors. Perspectives (Winter 2000): 18-20.

Three proposed position statements on community justice, privatization and prevention.



"The Balanced Approach in Juvenile Probation: Principles, Issues and Application." Troy L.

Armstrong, PhD, Dennis Maloney, Dennis Romig. Perspectives (Winter 1990): 6-13.

Reviews the historical and philosophical precedents for a "Balanced Approach" to juvenile probation, details the basic principles underlying this approach and conclude with a description of current efforts toward implementation.

"A 'Balanced Approach' for Juvenile Justice: How Is It Different? Is Anyone Doing It?" Bazemore, Gordon, PhD. Perspectives (Summer 1992): 19-23, 26.

Applies the new Balanced Approach theory to the probation of juvenile offenders which contrasts the long-term failure of the juvenile court to fulfill its tradition treatment mission. Outlines the three main objectives of the Balanced Approach -- accountability, community protection and competence development.

"Reinventing Rehabilitation" Exploring a Competency Development Model for Juvenile Justice Intervention." Gordon Bazemore. Perspectives (Fall 1995): 12-21.

Outlines the components of a competency development model for juvenile offender rehabilitation and contrasts the components of this model with those of individual treatment.


Speak Out!-“Hazardous Material Theory of Probation.” Robert Rosenbloom. Perspectives (Fall 2000): 10-11.

Discusses who the primary customer of probation really is and that the concept of probation under the Hazardous Material Theory is that probation departments manage probationers as a service provider to the courts.


"CMC As An Effective Supervision Tool: The South Carolina Perspective." Robert F. McManus, David I. Staff, C. Renee McDuffie. Perspectives (Summer 1988): 30-34.

Presents the results of an evaluation on the impact of the Client Management Classification System (CMC) in the South Carolina Department of Parole and Community Corrections jurisdiction.

"Guest Editorial - The Curse of Caseload Management." Andrew R. Klein. Perspectives (Winter 1989): 27-28.

Considers the usefulness in bringing about "creative" and effective approaches to supervision.

"Classification and Case Management for Probation and Parole: Don't Shoot the Messenger." Peggy Burke. Perspectives (Summer 1990): 37-42.

Examines the results of a national evaluation of the NIC Model System of Classification and Case Management of Probation and Parole.

"Caseload Standards: APPA Issues Committee Report." Perspectives (Summer 1991): 34-36.

Describes the history and problems associated with the concept of caseload and the benefits associated with the more current workload methodology.

"NIC Update: Public Protection Through Offender Risk Management." David D. Dillingham. Perspectives (Fall 1994): 16-17.

Discusses the risk management concept and the importance of incorporating both supervisory controls and treatment as a means of achieving public protection.

“Field Service Case Plans: Bane or Gain?” Mark Carey, David Goff, Gary Hinzman, Al Neff, Brian Owens, Larry Albert. Perspectives (Spring 2000): 30-41.

An assertion by the authors that the development and use of a case plan is one of the most important issues for today’s corrections professionals. The article contains many illustrations such as key components of a case plan, as well as citing four jurisdiction’s case plan experiences.


"The Citizen's Committee on the Juvenile Court of Cook County: A Case Study of Informing and Influencing Policy Makers." Gad J. Bensinger, PhD. Perspectives (Spring 1990): 26-30.

Traces the development of the Juvenile Court in Cook County, and discusses the important influences that citizen participation in oversight committees have had on the direction of the court's development.

"Washington's Partnership Between the Police and Community Corrections: A Program Worth Emulating." Sergeant Terry Morgan, Officer Stephen D. Marrs. Perspectives (Fall 1994): 28-30.

Provides an example of how one jurisdiction bridged the gap between police and probation and parole agencies by increasing communication and developing a strong partnership.

""Guest Editorial - A Partnership for Safe Communities: Courts, Education and Literacy: A `Grassroots' Public Opinion." Don R. Stiles. Perspectives (Winter 1994): 8-9.

Offers the viewpoints of Mr. John Q. "Grassroots" Public, which questions the view of prison; encourages corrections stakeholders to accept responsibility for public safety through alternative programming.

"Forging Community Partnerships." Patricia Wack. Perspectives (Winter 1995). Patricia Wack. Perspectives (Winter 1995): 30-32.

Discusses the importance of developing partnerships with community members and agencies. Describes three innovative programs, which focus on community collaboration to meet offender needs and to protect the public.

"Putting the `Community' in Corrections." Gerald Dash. Perspectives (Fall 1995): 45-47.

Provides an historical overview of the volunteer movement in community corrections. Describes types of volunteer programs and their effectiveness. Suggests the need for more volunteer programming and provides resources, which can help with their development.

"NIJ News - Communitarian Megatrends." Edwin Zedlewski. Perspectives (Spring 1996): 10-11.

Speculates on how the field of community corrections might respond to communitarian goals.

"Moving Toward Community Justice." Eduardo Barajas, Jr. Perspectives (Spring 1996): 32-35.

Explores the benefits of changing the focus of the criminal justice system away from the offender and toward the community and victim.

“Vision adVentures - Public-Public Partnerships in Ohio Community Corrections.” Reginald A. Wilkinson. Perspectives (Winter 1997): 7-9.

Examines the success of Ohio Department of Corrections’ Community-Based Corrections Facilities which was developed to reduce prison commitments, maximize public safety and provide treatment and a more effective method of returning offenders to the community

“Speak Out! -- Community Justice: Bad Ways of Promoting a Good Idea.” Ed Barajas. Perspectives (Summer 1997): 16-19.

Proposes that the community justice encompasses the community which includes citizens, victims, offenders and agencies and that community justice practices will never by completely successful if views continue that certain components of the justice system are either more or less worthy than others.

“Ethical Considerations in Probation Practice.” Marylouise E. Jones and Arthur J. Lurigio. Perspectives (Summer 1997): 26-32.

Examines moral and ethical consideration when the needs of individuals conflict with those of the broader community.

“Hampton Police Collaborate With Probation and Parole for Safer Communities. Pat G. Minetti and Dee Malcan. Perspectives (Fall 1997): 20-21.

Examination of the collaborative effort between the Hampton, Virginia Police Department and Probation Department and their joint efforts to ensure community safety.

“Portsmouth Probation, Parole and Law Enforcement Combining Resources to Prevent Crime.” Dee Malcan. Perspectives (Fall 1997): 26-28.

Examination of the collaborative efforts between Portsmouth, Virginia Police and Probation Departments and their joint efforts to prevent crime while preserving scarce resources.

“Developing Partnership for Gang Intervention: The Role for Community Corrections.” Ruth Triplet and Toby Ross. Perspectives (Fall 1998): 29-35.

Reports data from a survey of youth gangs in Texas. Discusses the role that community supervision can play in gang intervention by establishing broader community-based programs.

“Community Corrections of Place.” Todd R. Clear and Ronald P. Corbett. Perspectives (Winter 1999): 24-32.

Describes a community corrections strategy that not only draws its livelihood from a connection to individuals and groups at the community level, but also defines its function by its relevance to local community life.

“Community Corrections of Place.” Todd R. Clear and Ronald P. Corbett. Perspectives (Winter 1999): 24-32.

Describes a community corrections strategy that not only draws its livelihood from a connection to individuals and groups at the community level, but also defines its function by its relevance to local community life.

“Building Hope Through Community Justice.” Mark Carey. Perspectives (Spring 1999): 32-37.

Discusses new trends toward engaging citizens in shaping the services offered by government including community justice.

“Solutions for a Safer Community: Iowa’s Road to Community Justice.” Gerald Hinzman. Perspectives (Spring 1999): 42-46.

Describes Iowa’s system for community justice which is based on multi-agency collaboration, restorative justice principles and “what works” research in the treatment and rehabilitation of offenders.

“The Community Probation - Community Police Teamsm Process: Full Partners With the Local Community.” Harold Wooten. Perspectives (Winter 2000): 34-39.

Describes a system that gives more attention to high-risk cases while less attention to low risk offenders and therefore increase public safety without increased financial resources.

“Neighborhood Accountability Boards: the Santa Cruz County Approach.” Toni Spencer, Laura Garnette and Jeff Bidmon. Perspectives (Winter 2000): 40-42.

Discusses a program where various members of the community work together to solve problems and where traditional wisdom resurfaces and serves to buttress contemporary community values.

NIC Update-“NIC Initiatives for Fiscal Year 2000.” Eduardo Barajas, Jr. Perspectives (Winter 2000): 10.

Briefly describes three initiatives for the upcoming year; “Managing Initial Criminal Justice Decisions”, “Transition from Prison to the Community”, and “Improving Community Sanctions for Women Offenders”. One special initiative is also planned, “Changing Offender behavior to Promote Public Safety”.

NIJ News-“From Cell Blocks to Neighborhood Blocks: Revisiting Reentry.” Vincent Talucci, Amy Soloman. Perspectives (Winter 2000): 12-13.

Continues the discussion begun in Ed Zedlewski’s article (Perspectives, Summer 1999), regarding the issue of offender reentry and seeks to raise the awareness of communities to the challenges of inmates returning to their neighborhoods.

Life Course Criminology and Community Corrections.” John H. Laub, Leanna C. Allen. Perspectives (Spring 2000) 20-29.

The article seeks to bridge the gap between theoretical criminology and criminal justice practice by examining the implications of life course criminology.

“Hope in Community Corrections: Why Bother?” Carl Wicklund. Perspectives (Summer 2000): 18-22.

A discussion of the difficulties in maintaining hope in the field of community corrections and how a few simple steps can help create an atmosphere of optimism in the workplace.


"Jail as a Part of Probation: What Price Punishment?" Lawrence A. Bennett, PhD. Perspectives (Summer 1989): 18-21.

Considers the efficacy of jail time as a condition of probation both in terms of achieving the original goals for which it was imposed and its ultimate impact on criminal justice costs and future criminality.

"The Constitutionality of the "Scarlet Letter" Probation Conditions." Mark Jones. Perspectives (Spring 1991): 10-13.

Looks at whether the probationary period should include a scarlet letter component, ordering offenders to post signs on his property or vehicle indicating the type of criminal offense of which he has been convicted.

"APPA Issues Development Committee Report: Pros and Cons of Increasing Officer Authority to Impose or Remove Conditions of Supervision." Perspectives (Spring 1993): 31.

Summarizes current practices related to officer modification of supervisory conditions, the pros and cons associated with this authority, and recommendations for promoting consistency in applying such discretion.

"Guest Editorial - New York's Crime War: The Empire Strikes Out! Bill Bishop. Perspectives (Summer 1993): 13-14.

Discusses the importance of enforcing conditions and the judicial support needed when these conditions are violated. Also discusses the need to expand treatment options and the importance of assessing the effectiveness of various treatment modalities and probation and parole practices in general.


“Homeless in Phoenix.” Dan Crowley. Perspectives (Summer 2000): 48-49.

Addresses the difficulties of enforcing probation on homeless clients through personal experiences of the author.


“Speak Out - Domestic Violence: A Probation Officer’s View.” Carl Reddick and Don Chapin. Perspectives (Spring 1999): 18-22.

Discusses common errors that probation and parole officers often make when working with domestic abuse cases. Offers suggestions for dealing with these specialized caseloads.


“The District of Columbia Approach: Management Information Systems and Drug Courts.” John Carver, Kathryn R. Boyer and Ronald Hickey. Perspectives (Winter 1997): 26-30.

Describes the approach of the District of Columbia to integrate all of the necessary information about a defender’s drug use or participation in treatment to give judges a more important role in the supervision and treatment of drug offenders.

“A Short-Term Outcome Evaluation of the Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court Program.” Denise C. Gottfredson, Kris Coblentz and Michele A. Harmon. Perspectives (Winter 1997): 33-38.

Assesses the effectiveness of the Baltimore Drug Court Treatment program, which provides services to non-violent male and female offenders with drug abuse problems, during the program’s first year of operation.


"A Caveat for Program Designers in the War on Drugs: Know Your Enemy." Mario Paparozzi. Perspectives (Fall 1990): 10-11.

Comments on the "war on drugs" and words of caution in designing and operating drug intervention programs.

"Responding to Overcrowding and Offender Drug Use: How About a Community Corrections Approach?" John J. Robinson, Arthur J. Lurigio. Perspectives (Fall 1990): 22-27.

Looks at the problem of institutional overcrowding and its impact on community corrections.

"Guest Editorial: Lost Drug War." Cieslikowski, Carl J. Perspectives (Spring 1992): 18-19.

Examines at the country's drug problems and the issue of drug distribution and profits into proper perspective.

"Guest Editorial: Bankrupting a Society." Carl Cieslikowski. Perspectives (Fall 1992): 18-20.

Addresses the budget crisis resulting from the "war on drugs." Argues that expenditures on prisons and expensive drug policies will not reduce drug sales and abuse and suggests major revisions to the drug policy which focus on investments in education and prevention.

“Drugs and Crime In Criminology Literature.” Patricia King. Perspectives (Fall 1997):29-31.

Examines the empirical evidence regarding the extent of the relationship between substance abuse and crime related activities.

NIJ News-“Breaking the Cycle.” Edwin Zedlewski. Perspectives (Fall 1998)

Article offering suggestion on what to do with data showing that consumption of illicit drugs leads to the commission of crimes.


"Drug Testing and Recidivism of Houston Felony Probationers." Gerald R. Wheeler, PhD, Amy S.

Rudolph. Perspectives (Fall 1990): 36-43.

Presents findings from a study funded by the National Institute of Corrections concerning the relationship between drug testing and recidivism.


"Drug Testing in Probation and Parole: Where Are We Now?" Ed Tedder. Perspectives (Fall 1993): 28-33.

Discusses testing policies among probation and parole agencies including offender selection, frequency of testing and sanctions used for identified drug use. Describes technical assistance project designed to enhance these policies, a research design to evaluate the policies and project outcomes.

"Hair Analysis for Drugs of Abuse: Applications in the Criminal Justice System." Berka, Chris, and Baumgartner, Werner, PhD. Perspectives (Summer 1991): 51-54.

Discusses of state-of-the-art drug testing using hair specimens and a review of a pilot program using hair analysis to monitor probationers.

"NIJ News - Old Wine in New Bottles?" Edwin Zedlewski. Perspectives (Summer 1996): 14-15.

Describes the series of exploration that the National Institute of Justice has begun on ways to broaden the scope of its Drug Use Forecasting Program which tracks national incidence trends by testing arrestees in 23 cities for an array of drugs.

Research Update--Is Drug Testing Effective? And Does ‘Needs Assessment’ Make a Difference?” Norm Holt. Perspectives (Fall 1997): 24-25.

Reviews of two articles. The first is on Needs Assessment under the Canadian Model. The Second is on the effectiveness of drug testing from a study done by the RAND Corporation.


"European 'Day-Fines' as a Method for Improving the Administration of Monetary Penalties in American Criminal Courts." Sally T. Hillsman, Judith A. Greene. Perspectives (Summer 1988): 35-38.

Addresses significant issues, which will allow and encourage the use of more appropriate and enforceable economic sanctions as alternatives to incarceration.

"The Fee Fad: Punishment Without Public Policy." Fahy G. Mullaney. Perspectives (Fall 1988): 6-8.

Reviews the current state of economic sanctions, including supervision fees in community corrections.

"Probation Supervision Fee Collection in Texas." Dale G. Parent. Perspectives (Winter 1989): 9-12.

Presents a case study of probation supervision fee collections in Texas.

"Point and Counterpoint: Fees for Supervision - Debating the Issues for Probation and Parole." Hank Duffie, Gail D. Hughes. Perspectives (Winter 1989): 24-26.

Debates the issue of fees for supervision.

"Combining Probation with Restitution: A Cost-Effective Alternative." Richard Lawrence. Perspectives (Spring 1989): 6-9, 32.

Describes a new approach to combining probation, restitution and residential placement.

"Economic Sanctions in Perspective: Do Probationers' Characteristics Affect Fee Assessment, Payment and Outcome?" Gerald R. Wheeler, Amy S. Rudolph, Rodney V. Hissong. Perspectives (Summer 1989): 12-17.

Reports on the methods and results of a study of the economic sanctions imposed on and paid by probationers in Harris County, Texas.

"Compliance with Court-Ordered Restitution: Who Pays?" Davis, Robert C., and Arthur J. Lurigio. Perspectives (Spring 1992): 25-31.

Examines the research of three autonomous restitution programs around the country, beginning with an overview of the resurgence of restitution and a discussion of the problem of noncompliance. Sample descriptions, measures, bivariate correlations and multivariate analysis are explored.

"Supervision Fees: APPA Issues Committee Report." Jim Mills. Perspectives (Fall 1992): 10-12.

Frames the ongoing philosophical debate associated with the collection and use of supervision fees. Discusses specific pros and cons of fee collection and recommends steps to be taken prior to the implementation of supervision fees.

"An Introduction to the Management and Collection of Restitution." Tracy Godwin Mullins. Perspectives (Special Issue 1994): 41-43.

Discusses legislative impact on restitution collection, obstacles to collection, strategies for enforcing restitution orders, innovative methods of restitution collection.

“The Money Trail: Following the Trends in Correctional Dollars.” Harry Boone. Perspectives (Fall 1997): 32-33.

Examines the trend of increased corrections spending and increased prison construction and offers recommendations for alternatives to incarceration spending.


"Book Review: Man, I Need a Job! Finding Employment With a Criminal History, by Ned Rollo." Goethals, Ron. Perspectives (Fall 1991): 13.

Reviews a book designed to assist offenders and their families in preparation and job search techniques.

"Employment Assistance as a Part of Probation." Brown, Jr., Melvin, PhD., and Young, Ken, MBA. Perspectives (Spring 1992): 38-39.

Reports on a survey of Montgomery County, Texas probationers showing that the biggest problem was that of employment. A program to alleviate the low employment rate was implemented. The program, the Offender Employment Program, assessed the offender's employability and then based on its finding referred the offender to Job Readiness Training or directly to Job Search.

"The Power of Partnerships: Establishing Literacy Programs in Community Corrections." Paul O'Connell, Jacquelyn M. Power. Perspectives (Fall 1992): 6-8.

Discusses the importance of partnerships in an era of budget cuts and limited resources. Provides suggestions on how to develop community partnerships and describes literacy programs developed through collaboration between the Arizona Supreme Court, county probation departments and the Department of Education.

"Making a Difference: The Effect of Literacy and General Education Development Programs on Adult Offenders on Probation." Gayle R. Siegel. Perspectives (Winter 1994): 38-43.

Reports on national and Arizona statistics on illiteracy and the relationship between education and recidivism. Describes Pima County's literacy program and the results of a study on program effectiveness.


"Electronic Monitoring: An Evolving Alternative." Bobbie L. Huskey. Perspectives (Summer 1987): 19-23.

Reviews electronic surveillance in probation and parole across the country and preliminary assessments of performance as well as legal, technical and operational issues.

"Guest Editorial: House Arrest is Worthy Innovation - If It's Not Just for the Well-off." Joan Petersilia. Perspectives (Fall 1987): 8-9.

Comments on electronically monitored home confinement.

"Understanding the Limits of Technology: An Examination of the Use of Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System." James M. Byrne, Linda Kelly, Susan Guarino-Ghezzi. Perspectives (Spring 1988): 30-37.

Examines the use of electronic monitoring which reveals both its myths and realities in practice.

"Narcotic Electronic Surveillance." Jim Bray. Perspectives (Winter 1991): 32.

Describes how one project targets drug-involved offenders incorporating electronic surveillance as an effective supervision tool.

"APPA Position Statement: Electronic Monitoring." Perspectives (Winter 1996): 31-32.

Provides APPA's advocacy of electronic monitoring when implemented responsibly. Outlines several considerations for effective electronic monitoring programs.

"Electronic Monitoring: Testimony to Ontario's Standing committee on Administration of Justice." Donald Evans. Perspectives (Fall 1996): 8-10.

Overviews the plan of Ontario's Minister of Correctional Services to introduce an electronic monitoring program for adult offenders. Includes the testimony of Donald Evans, representing the American Probation and Parole Association that he delivered to the Standing Committee on Administration of Justice, which was formed to examine the proposed electronic monitoring program.

"Electronic Home Confinement: Judicial and Legislative Perspectives." Harry N. Boone, Jr., Ph.D. Perspectives (Fall 1996): 18-25.

Examines the findings of a national survey conducted by the American Probation and Parole Association that was used to gather baseline information on the opinions of judges and policymakers on practices and issues relating to electronic home confinement.

"The Evaluation of Electronic Monitoring Programs." Dr. Alvin W. Cohn, Louis G. Biondi, and Lesley Chickering Flaim. Perspectives (Fall 1996): 28-37.

Overviews the history of electronic monitoring and recommends the following issues be considered as electronic monitoring is accepted as an effective alternative to incarceration: the appropriateness and relationship to the overcrowding of correctional institution, to net-widening for offenders selected, the effectiveness in reducing recidivism and the overall reliability of programs and equipment.

“Speak Out-Electronic Supervision Tools: Lessons Learned.” Marion Paparozzi and Carl Wicklund. Perspectives (Spring 1998): 8-9.

Discusses the positive benefits of electronic monitoring in light of recent bad publicity.

“Mail Box-What Happened to Electronic Monitoring.” Linda Connelly. Perspectives (Spring 1998): 10-11.

Discussion of the positive and negative aspects of electronic monitoring and how it should never take the place of direct supervision and contact.

“Mail Box-Community Corrections and the Paradigm Switch.” David Bland. Perspectives (Spring 1998): 11.

Examines the negative aspects of electronic monitoring and how technology has unsuccessfully replaced individual attention.


"Women and Crime: New Perspectives." Matthew Archibald. Perspectives (Summer 1989): 28-30.

Reports on the results of a profile of female probationers in Massachusetts which challenges traditional stereotypes for these offenders.

"Female Offenders in the Community." Barbara Bloom. Perspectives (Spring 1993): 22-23.

Discusses the escalating number of women under control of the criminal justice system. Describes the special needs of women offenders promising strategies for supervising women offenders in the community.

“Young Women in the Juvenile Justice System: Gender Specific Meets Restorative Justice.” Jay Zaslaw. Perspectives (Winter 1999): 33-38.

Explains that many programs for young women fail because they use the same approaches with young women as they do young men. Examines the significance of relationships in working with female offenders.


"Point and Counterpoint: Firearms, Debating the Issues for Probation and Parole." Alan M. Schuman, Tamara Holden. Perspectives (Summer 1989): 6-8.

Debates the use of firearms for probation and parole officers weighing such issues as safety, as well as their impact on client and public perceptions.

"Guest Editorial - Point-Counterpoint Revisited: Firearms - Debating the Issues for Probation and Parole." Mario A. Paparozzi, Barry B. Bass. Perspectives (Summer 1990): 8-9.

Responds to the first "Point and Counterpoint" on the issue of firearms which was originally published in the Perspectives Summer 1989 issue.

"A Primer: The Arming of Probation and Parole Officers." Edward Veit, Albert G. Smith. Perspectives (Spring 1993): 17-20.

Discusses the relevant issues in arming a probation or parole agency, including preparation of a written firearm policy, selecting equipment, initial and ongoing training requirements and an ongoing monitoring/feedback system.

"APPA Position Statement: Weapons." Perspectives (Spring 1994): 35-36.

Summarizes APPA's neutral position on officers carrying weapons. Recommends steps to be taken prior arming officers.


"His 150 year-old Lesson Needs Re-learning: How One Man Proved Probation Can Work." Moran, Richard. Perspectives (Fall 1991): 24-25.

Reviews how John Augustus developed probation by applying drug treatment and other resources for an effective crime control strategy.

"British Columbia Probation Service: Fit and Feisty at Fifty." Stephen Howell. Perspectives (Winter 1993): 28-29.

Traces the history and development of the British Columbia Probation Service.

“Probation in the United States.’ Part One. Joan Petersilia. Perspectives (Spring 1998): 30-41.

Part one of a two-part article on the history of probation in the United States. It examines history and Probation and Modern sentencing practices for adult and juveniles. It also looks at the characteristics of the average person on probation.

“Probation in the United States.” Part Two. Joan Petersilia. (Summer 1998): 42-49.

Continuation of article above. Examines whether Probation works and how to revive probation. Includes a review of intermediate sanctions options.

“Probation The Times are Changing.” Donald Cochran and John F. McDevitt. Perspectives (Winter 1998): 20-25.

Article examining the history of probation in the United States. Probation history is divided into 3 distinct stages: Pre-twentieth Century, twentieth century, and emerging era of effective partnerships.


"Managing a Home Detention Program." John F. Scott. Perspectives (Winter 1991): 33.

Presents an overview of how the Los Angeles County Probation Department developed and implemented a Work Furlough Detention Program in order to alleviate a jail-crowding problem.


"Evaluating Intensive Probation Supervision: The Cook County Experience." Arthur J. Lurigio, PhD. Perspectives (Winter 1987): 17-19.

Reports on the evaluation of the Cook County IPS Program following its first year of implementation.

"Intensive Parole in Massachusetts: Agency and Client Perspectives." Barberet, Rosemary. Perspectives (Summer 1988): 39-41.

Discusses the unique aspects of intensive parole in Massachusetts.

"Intensive Supervision Parole in Texas." Greg Markley. Perspectives (Summer 1988): 44-45.

Discusses the unique aspects of intensive parole in Texas.

"Community Supervision of High Risk Offenders." Daniel Nevers. Perspectives (Spring 1989): 10-13.

Outlines the Wisconsin experience in designing and implementing a supervision program for high risk offenders.

"Reducing Criminal Risk: An Evaluation of the High Risk Offender Intensive Supervision Project." Dennis Wagner. Perspectives (Summer 1989): 22-27.

Describes the research methods and reports on some very positive findings of a study conducted on the High Risk Offender Intensive Supervision Project in Wisconsin.

"Evaluation of the Florida Community Control Program." Dennis Wagner. Perspectives (Spring 1991): 35-39.

Describes Florida's Community Control Program, which was developed and implemented to decrease prison crowding and still provide a safe, punishment-oriented community alternative to incarceration.

"Is ISP a Viable Sanction for High-Risk Probationers?" Petersilia, Joan, PhD., and Susan Turner, PhD., The RAND Corporation. Perspectives (Summer 1991): 8-11.

Reports on an evaluation of intensive supervision programs for high-risk probationers that were randomly selected in three California locations.

"Guest Editorial: 'Nothing Works' Revisited." Nidorf, Barry J. Perspectives (Summer 1991): 12-13.

Challenges the RAND evaluation of the ISP program within Los Angeles inner city.

"Achieving Public Safety through the Provision of Intense Services: The Promise of a New ISP." Betsy Fulton, Susan Stone. Perspectives (Winter 1993): 43-45.

Recommends a conceptual framework for ISP that focuses on addressing offender needs and promoting long-term behavioral change. Identifies fourteen critical elements for effective ISPs.

"APPA's Prototypical Intensive Supervision Program: ISP As It Was Meant To Be." Betsy Fulton. Perspectives (Spring 1995): 25-41.

Provides background information on intensive supervision programs and guidelines for developing a prototypical ISP. Discusses several critical elements and summarizes program descriptions and evaluations of four ISP programs.

“Intensive Supervision Officers Survey: Officer Attitudes and Orientations.” Toby Ross and W. Wesely Johnson. Perspectives (Fall 1997): 37-41.

Report on Survey conducted among Texas Intensive Supervision Officers.

“Probation and Parole Supervision: Time for a New Narrative.” Edward E. Rhine. Perspectives (Winter 1998): 26-28.

Examines the current crisis in criminal justice, the forces affecting the crisis, and the role of community supervision in ending that crisis.

“Accurate ISP Selection: Revisited.” Edward C. Birkel. Perspectives (Fall 2000): 18-21.

The results of a study to determine the optimal combination of worksheet variables for ISP (Intensive Supervision Probation) selection. The goal is to match appropriate levels of supervision and to allocate resources most effectively.


"'Systemizing' Local Criminal Justice Systems: The Interagency Coordinating Committee." Johnny E. McGaha. Perspectives (Spring 1988): 6-8, 15.

Looks at solutions on systemizing local criminal justice agencies.

"Inter-Agency Evaluation, Diagnosis and Referral Program." Stephen A. Bocian, C. Wayne Kempske. Perspectives (Fall 1990): 34-35.

Looks at the State of Maryland's Evaluation, Diagnosis and Referral (EDR) Program which provides for the timely identification and assessment of substance abusing offenders and appropriate treatment referrals.

"Results from an APPA Survey: Coordinating Probation/Parole Services with Community Drug Abuse Treatment." Carl Leukefeld, PhD. Perspectives (Spring 1991): 40-44.

Analyzes the Coordinated Interagency Drug Training and Technical Assistance Project which

surveyed probation/parole professionals and treatment practitioners on roles and practices of their profession.

"The Resource Referral Process: What is Between Human Services and Offender Adjustment?" Arthur R. Spica, Jr. Perspectives (Winter 1993): 24-26.

Discusses the multiplicity of offender problems requiring services and the impact that the referral process has on service delivery and offender adjustment. Outlines several considerations for making successful referrals.

"Alabama's Comprehensive Judicial Approach to Problems of Chemical Abuse Within Society." Marty Ramsay. Perspectives (Summer 1994): 33-35.

Describes Alabama's Court Referral Program which provides comprehensive case management services for courts.

"Making Technology Work: The Trials and Tribulations of One County's Leap into the 21st Century." Jim F. Mills. Perspectives (Summer 1996): 22-23.

Describes Dallas County Community Supervision and Corrections Department's experiences, successes and failure as they completely computerized the agency.


"Reducing Prison Admissions: The Potential of Intermediate Sanctions." Joan Petersilia, Susan Turner, PhD. Perspectives (Spring 1990): 32-36.

Looks at results from research conducted on estimating the potential impacts of intermediate sanction programs on prison admissions.

"Some Research and Policy Development Implications: Defining a Continuum of Sanctions." Alan T. Harland, Ph.D. Perspectives (Spring 1993): 6-15.

Discusses the dangers associated with the haphazard development and use of intermediate sanctions and the important difference between developing a "list" or "menu" of options versus a "continuum of sanctions." Suggests that the effective development of a continuum of sanctions require a clarification of terms and purpose; the differentiation between sanctioning options and programs that administer them; and the scaling of sanctions across various dimensions.

"Guest Editorial - Intermediate Sanctions and Probation Crowding." Mark Carey. Perspectives (Fall 1993): 6-7.

Suggests that as probation chases the new and exciting trend of intermediate sanctions a counter trend of probation crowding emerge leading to shift in the way probation services are delivered. Current probation practice must be consistent with the objectives of intermediate sanction planning.

"Correctional Options and Implementation Issues: Results from a Survey of Correctional Professionals." Faye S. Taxman, Ph.D. Perspectives (Winter 1994): 32-37.

Provides an overview of correctional option programs. Reports survey findings on correctional professionals perceptions of the severity of punishment for various options and the exchange of correctional options for jail time.

NIJ News-“Working Toward Different Margins.” Edwin Zedlewski. Perspectives (Spring 1998): 12.

Discusses intermediate sanction in a world of rising and declining resources.

“A Decade of Experimenting with Intermediate Sanctions: What Have We Learned?” Joan Petersillia. Perspectives (Winter 1999): 39-44.

Reviews what has been learned during the past 10 to 15 years about the restrictions and costs of intermediate sanctions



"Standardization: Still Our Goal After 50 Years." Chuck Cornwell. Perspectives (Summer 1988): 14-15.

Recommendations by the National Commission to Restructure the Interstate Compact for Probationers and Parolees.

"APPA Position Statement: Interstate Compact for Supervision of Parolees and Probationers." Perspectives (Winter 1996): 29-30.

Provides APPA's draft position on the Interstate Compact's responsibilities to supervise services for offenders who wish to reside and work outside the jurisdictional boundaries of a member state or territory. Recommends guidelines for Compact Services operations.


"APPA Position Statement: Interstate Compact for Supervision of Parolees and Probationers." Perspectives (Summer 1996): 16-17.

Provides APPA's second draft position on the Interstate Compact's responsibilities to supervise services for offenders who wish to reside and work outside the jurisdictional boundaries of a member state or territory. This draft was accepted by the membership in June 1996.

“NIC Update - Interstate Compact for the Supervision of Parolees and Probationers: An Issue of Public Protection-Nationwide.” Kermit Humphries. Perspectives (Fall 1998): 14-15.

Explains the role of the Interstate Compact for the Supervision of Parolees and Probationers, why it is outdated, and what will be involved in updated it.

“NIC Update - Interstate Compact to be Updated.” Ed Barajas. Perspectives (Summer 1999): 10.

Outlines proposed amendments to the Interstate Compact.