Free Publications & Reports

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APPA’s C.A.R.E. Model: A Framework for Collaboration, Analysis, Reentry, and Evaluation: A Response to Street Gang Violence

The C.A.R.E. report, funded by a Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) award from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), provides guidance to agencies on forming, participating, and prospering within a multi-agency collaboration. Though primarily targeted at anti-gang strategies, the fundamentals of the C.A.R.E. approach (collaboration, analysis, reentry, evaluation) can more broadly be applied to a variety of crime issues across a variety of jurisdictions. In line with the tenets of PSN, this framework promotes interagency partnerships (both within and outside of the justice community), strategic planning, and continual evaluation. Divided by four central chapters, each theme of the framework is covered in depth and led by a concise policy guideline and concluded with a list of practice recommendations.

Attitudes about electronic monitoring: Minority and majority racial group differences

Past public opinion research routinely uncovered significant variation in attitudes toward justice system policies among different racial groups. The bulk of punishment attitudinal research, for the most part,focused on more severe sanctions, namely, incarceration and the death penalty. More recent research investigated the perspectives and experiences associated with intermediate sanctions. There are few intermediate sanctions receiving more attention than the use of electronic monitoring, especially with sex offenders. In this article, it is demonstrated that non-White college students have significantly different attitudes about the punitiveness and inequality of electronic monitoring. These findings were uncovered through 599 completed surveys from two universities, and using factor analysis and least-squares regression analysis. Theoretical and practical implications for continued use of this sanction are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Community Corrections Automated Case Management Procurement Guide with Bid Specifications

    With support from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) developed and published this report to provide guidance to the field of probation, parole, and community corrections concerning the procurement of automated information solutions (e.g., case management system [CMS]). Previously little was made available on the topic in one concise volume. This report provides guidance on preparing for change (e.g., strategic planning, evaluating the current technological climate), choosing between developing or procuring (or a combination of the two) a solution, preparing and developing a Request for Proposal (RFP) (including an RFP template), information sharing considerations, and tips for evaluating proposals. In addition, the appendix includes an extensive list of system requirements (i.e., bid specifications) for agencies to adapt for use in their own RFPs.

      Community Corrections’ Preparedness for Responding to Pandemic Flu and Other Crises: A Report of Responses to a Request for Information

      Under a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), will provide guidance to community corrections agencies in formulating strategic plans and protocols for responding to pandemic flu and other crises. One of the first steps toward this goal is to collect information about existing plans and protocols. This preliminary report summarizes the responses to a request for information that was sent by APPA to agencies across the Country.

      Community Corrections Response to Domestic Violence

      This document provides a series of guidelines for community corrections professionals that support a proactive community supervision approach for domestic violence cases. It pulls together in one place for community corrections professionals and allied justice system and community-base services the conceptual information and practical tools to develop or enhance effective programs. Readers of this document will find a recommended course of action that can be used to achieve the three central goals of the document: increased safety and autonomy for victims of domestic violence, heightened accountability for offenders who commit intimate partner violence, and the promotion of changes in offender behavior and thinking patterns.

      Community Supervision Workload Considerations for Public Safety

      Supported by a grant awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the American Probation and Parole Association developed the report Community Supervision Workload Considerations for Public Safety discussing the dilemma of managing officer time amidst an array of tasks, constraining resources, and high caseloads. Two tools are provided within the document; 1) workload matrices that provide agencies with estimated time ranges for specific tasks officers complete classified by risk level and case type (e.g., domestic violence, sex offender), and 2) a time study template to assist agencies in conducting their own examination of officer workload.

      Corrections and Reentry: Protected Health Information Privacy Framework for Information Sharing

      PHI Framework Guide was developed by the Institute for Intergovernmental Research with funding support from the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) and the Association of State Correctional Administrators (ASCA) under cooperative agreements by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Justice Programs (OJP), U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). The purpose of the framework guide is to provide recommendations for addressing issues concerning the protection, handling, and exchange of PHI between corrections and health providers in compliance with federal law.

      A Desktop Guide for Tribal Probation Personnel:The Screening and Assessment Process

      This guide is intended to provide tribal probation personnel with information on how the screening and assessment process can facilitate and promote offender accountability and long-term behavior change. This guidebook discusses the use of screening and assessment tools within the constructs of Risk-Need-Responsivity Model; the benefits of using screening and assessment tools; the challenges to using screening and assessment tools; and the factors to consider when choosing tools to use in your agency. Further, Appendix A of this guidebook provides tribal probation officers with an index of screening and assessment tools which were cataloged by the Reentry Policy Council. These tools are searchable by domains, or focus areas, including criminal thinking, employment & education, family relationships, financial status, housing, mental health, physical health, recidivism risk, and substance abuse. Appendix B provides screening and assessment tools for domestic violence.

      Dispelling the Myths about Justice-Health Information Sharing

      This brief dispels the myths of federal regulations such as HIPAA and 42 CFR Part 2 in terms of information sharing and demonstrates the palatable potential of justice-health exchanges by referencing the many tools available from the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (a.k.a., GLOBAL).

      Drug Testing Guidelines and Practices for Adult Probation and Parole Agencies

      The publication examines the fundamental program issues that must be addressed by agencies considering drug testing.

      Effective Responses to Offender Behavior: Lessons Learned for Probation and Parole Supervision

      This report highlights key lessons learned around planning and implementation of sanctions and incentives, with particular attention to ways in which states and local jurisdictions can improve effective responses in probation and parole supervision. This report first provides an overview of the research and rationale supporting swift and certain sanctions and responses shown to be effective in community supervision. Second, the report provides key lessons learned based on the feedback received by attendees at the conference. Lastly, the report summarizes practical implications about the use of the effective administrative response approach in community supervision, including directions for future research. A separate executive summary was also developed for the report

      Elder Panels: An Alternative to Incarceration for Tribal Members

      The Tribal Justice Plan reflects the desires expressed by many tribal nations to keep their people out of correctional facilities—if they can safely be supervised in the community. To realize this, communities are looking for alternatives to incarceration that meet the goals of community supervision of holding individuals accountable while also providing them the tools they need to change their behavior.

      In many tribal communities, elders serve their tribes as traditional healers, spiritual guiders, and council members. In a growing number of tribal communities, elders are also being asked to serve within tribal justice systems to assist tribal members in making reparations to victims and/or the community as a result of criminal/delinquent behavior. This bulletin will provide a brief overview of the various ways elders can be used within the justice system and provide guidance on important things to consider if your community is interested in developing a formal elder panel or is interested in utilizing elders informally in your community.

      An Elected Official's Guide to Community Correctional Options

      In the past decade or so, there have been significant advances in community corrections research. There is evidence that community correctional options can and do protect the public. While serious, chronic, and violent adults (and juveniles) should be locked up, a large proportion of adult offenders and delinquent youth can be effectively and safely managed in the community through the utilization of research-based practices and strategies. Most of the recommended practices identified and described in this Guide are considered to be promising practices or have been evaluated and found to be effective. Most have been shown to produce a substantial return on investment. Many have been certified as “evidence-based” through a well-respected research organization. Based on the latest research available, the practices and strategies identified in this guide are viable, evidence-based options for reducing recidivism and preventing crime while managing costs.

      Enhanced Sentencing in Tribal Courts: Lessons Learned from Tribes

      The Bureau of Justice Assistance, in partnership with the American Probation and Parole Association, the National Tribal Judicial Center, and the Tribal Judicial Institute, announces the release of “Enhanced Sentencing in Tribal Courts: Lessons Learned From Tribes.” This publication provides a brief overview, not a comprehensive review, of the changes under the Tribal Law & Order Act (TLOA) of 2010 (Public Law 111–211, H.R. 725, 124 Stat. 2258, enacted July 29, 2010) regarding enhanced sentencing authority, offers considerations for correctional/detention and community corrections programming related to enhanced sentences, and provides tribes with a checklist to help guide discussions around implementation of enhanced sentencing authority. Additionally, this publication explores the adoption of TLOA’s enhanced sentencing authority through interviews with several tribal court judges and personnel who have been intricately involved in establishing the provisions required to convey enhanced sentences. Finally, this publication provides information on financial resources to fund enhanced sentencing authority implementation.

      Enhancing Rural Reentry Through Housing Partnerships

      With support from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Family Justice explored the challenges of rural housing and reentry, as well as opportunities for collaboration that could yield creative solutions. This handbook discusses potential beneficial partnerships that community corrections departments can cultivate to fully tap resources and expertise. The handbook also suggests various strategies to increase housing options for people coming home from jail and prison—and for their families.

      This handbook was created by Family Justice and listed on the APPA website with permission. For more information, visit the Vera Institute of Justice.

      Functional Standards Development for Automated Case Management Systems for Probation

      The American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) with a grant from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) has developed a document defining functional standards for effective automated case management systems for probation. The standards were reviewed, edited, and enhanced by a Standards Development Team composed of probation practitioners, criminal justice information technology experts, and information system vendors, and they were disseminated for public comment. Thus, the final document represents input and feedback from a broad and varied audience.

      Guidelines for the Community Supervision of DWI Offenders

      To protect the public and provide DWI offenders with adequate interventions to help promote behavior change, it is important for community corrections agencies to assess their practices and programs for this population. The Guidelines for the Community Supervision of DWI Offenders developed by APPA with funding from NHTSA, is intended to provide a framework for developing, implementing, and operating effective programs for the community supervision of DWI offenders. The guidelines are recommended strategies—from a policy and a practice perspective—for achieving the best possible outcomes and providing a structure from which to build a solid approach and direction, to ensure long-term public safety by reducing recidivism through offender behavioral change.

      Guns Safety and Proactive Supervision

      The information in this monograph is intended to raise concerns and issues that agencies and officers should consider in decisions about proactive supervision as it relates to dealing with prohibited offenders who may possess guns. The document does not prescribe a template or model for this. Rather, agencies and officers may wish to use the document as a center of discussion on policies and procedures, especially with the agency’s legal counsel who is in the position to advise them on federal, state, and local laws that apply to the practice of supervision.

      Hardcore Drunk Driving Community Corrections Guide: A Resource for Outlining Supervision Challenges, Effective Strategies, and Model Programs

      The American Probation and Parole Association and The Century Council partnered to develop the “Hardcore Drunk Driving Community Corrections Guide: A Resource for Outlining Supervision Challenges, Effective Strategies, and Model Programs.” This new resource is designed to assist Probation and Parole professionals in recognizing the complexities of hardcore drunk driving cases and identifying strategies to effectively supervise these offenders throughout the various stages of the justice process. It also promotes the implementation of a multi-disciplinary team approach to the community supervision of the hardcore drunk driving offender.

      An Implementation Guide for Juvenile Holdover Programs

      Juvenile holdover programs provide a unique opportunity for juvenile justice agencies and the community to participate in the development of a community-based, short-term, temporary holding program for youth who do not require secure detention. An Implementation Guide for Juvenile Holdover Programs provides program planners with theory as well as tools to assist with the design, planning, and implementation process. Additional assistance is provided in the appendixes of the manual and sample forms for juvenile holdover programs are provided on an accompanying compact disk. Available free while supplies at (859) 244-8207.

      Implementing the Family Support Approach for Community Supervision

      Families and social networks are powerful influences in the lives of individuals under supervision and when their influence is activated appropriately and effectively their support can be leveraged to help individuals under supervision achieve their supervision goals. Helping individuals under supervision identify and tap social networks of support in a strength-based and solution-focused approach can be relatively easy. Family Justice and the American Probation and Parole Association, with support from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) have developed Implementing the Family Support Approach for Community Supervision to provide community corrections agencies and practitioners an overview of the Family Support Approach for Community Supervision and to describe primary tools and techniques that can be utilized throughout the supervision process—from an individual supervision officer perspective and from an agency perspective—to put the concepts of the approach into everyday practice. Readers will learn how concepts and practices discussed within the Family Support Approach for Community Supervision are not to be viewed as a new or replacement program, but, rather should be viewed as a relatively easy enhancement of a skill set that can complement current practices.

      Improving the Administration of Justice in Tribal Communities through Information Sharing and Resource Sharing

      This document summarizes findings from a focus group convened by the American Probation & Parole Association, with funding from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, comprised of three jurisdictional teams of federal, state, and tribal probation officers to identify effective and collaborative information and resource sharing strategies among tribal, state and federal jurisdictions. The focus group participants identified challenges they have encountered in their quest to collaborate in these areas as well as identified solutions to the challenges to implement in their communities. This bulletin was developed to share these ideas so that other jurisdictions experiencing similar issues can strive to develop more effective working partnerships to offer needed services to tribal offenders and to help local, state and federal pretrial, probation and parole officers perform their duties more effectively and efficiently.

      Intersecting Laws: The Tribal Law and Order Act and the Indian Civil Rights Act

      The American Probation and Parole Association, in partnership with the Tribal Judicial Institute at the University of North Dakota School of Law and with support from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, is pleased to announce the release of its publication, Intersecting Laws: The Tribal Law and Order Act and the Indian Civil Rights Act. This publication explains the expanded sentencing rights of Indian tribes under the Tribal Law and Order Act and how those rights must be exercised consistent with the rights of criminal defendants protected by the Indian Civil Rights Act. In addition, Intersecting Laws explains a number of challenges that tribes should consider when imposing enhanced sentencing on criminal defendants, as well as offers solutions to overcome the challenges.

      Involving Families in Case Planning

      It is important for tribal probation officers to involve families and leverage what they can bring to the supervision process to help probationers be successful. This bulletin will discuss the benefits and challenges of involving families in the case planning and supervision process and includes examples from tribal probation officers about their work with families.

      National Youth Court Guidelines

      By Tracy M. Godwin, Michelle E. Heward, and Tom Spina, Jr.
      (Published in 2000;146 pages)

      Developed by the American Probation and Parole Association/Council of State Government, which administered the National Youth Court Center, the National Youth Court Guidelines are designed to give youth courts direction for developing and operating effective programs for the ultimate purpose of increasing program accountability and integrity of the “youth court field.” Each chapter begins with a brief overview of the guidelines that are recommended for that particular program area. Afterwards, each guideline is discussed in more detail. A rationale for each guideline, as well as tips for implementing each guideline is included. At the conclusion of each chapter there is a section that identifies some outcomes youth court programs might reasonably expect if they adhere to the recommendations made in the guidelines.

      Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology: A User’s Guide

      Are you thinking of adding an electronic monitoring component? Have you considered the potential unintended consequences? Have workload needs been thought out? Have liability and constitutional issues been addressed? What about fees? Will electronic monitoring reduce or increase operating costs? These and several other issues are addressed in APPA’s Offender Supervision with Electronic Technology: A User’s Guide, second edition. In the second edition of Offender Supervision, there is a new focus on evidence-based practices, the use of technologies for different offender types, expanded and updated legal section, and a continued emphasis of demonstrating how research findings can guide practice. Offender Supervision is designed to inform community corrections policy and practice. Updated second edition!

      Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response Planning: Guidelines for Community Corrections

      Providing a wealth of information and links to an extensive array of resources, these Guidelines are intended to help agencies construct plans that ensure the continuation of mission-critical functions as well as the protection of employees’ and clients’ health and safety during a crisis, whether caused by a pandemic or another natural or man-made disaster.

      Parole Brochure on Sex Trafficking

      Parole Officers supervise criminal offenders in their community settings, and can play a critical role in identifying victims of human trafficking, as well as those victimizers (traffickers/pimps) seeking to exploit others for profit. The majority of Parole Officers have a limited understanding of the issue of sex trafficking and how it may show up with their offenders. This training brochure will explore both victimization and the criminal act of sexually exploiting another person for profit.

      Peer Justice and Youth Empowerment: An Implementation Guide for Teen Court Programs

      By Tracy M. Godwin, David J. Steinhart, and Betsy Fulton
      (Published in 1996; revised in 1998;176 pages, plus appendices)

      The American Probation and Parole Association, which administered the National Youth Court Center, developed Peer Justice and Youth Empowerment: An Implementation Guide for Youth Courts to provide program organizers with baseline information on developing, implementing, and enhancing teen court programs within their jurisdictions. Rather than endorsing one particular model of teen court, this manual provides program organizers and potential stakeholders with a general overview of issues to consider and guides them through a decision making process for the implementation of a teen court program that fits local needs. Sample forms and other helpful resources are also included as supplementary materials..

      Practical Action Tips on Officer Safety for Tribal Probation Personnel

      The community supervision of court-involved individuals in Indian Country provides many challenges. One challenge officer’s face is a lack of access to the necessary equipment to remain safe both in the office and in the field. However, it is not just ballistic vests, electronic control devises, and guns that will keep them safe. There are things officers can do to be proactive in maintaining their personal safety when faced with potentially threatening situations because, the reality is, some individuals placed on community supervision have the potential to pose a threat to their safety. This bulletin will provide tribal probation officers with some practical action steps they can take to make sure they are safe both in the office and out in the field.

      Predicting Repeat DWI: Chronic Offending, Risk Assessment, and Community Supervision

      Chronic drunk driving continues to be a significant problem in our society. Although this is a reduction from previous years, the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) and others are working further to reduce this number. From funding by NHTSA, the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) has developed a two-part series project to develop a DWI risk assessment tool and training curriculum for community corrections professionals. This report details the first part of the project, which was to provide justification through empirical support for the need to pilot a risk assessment tool at multiple jurisdictions. This report provides an overview of the development of risk assessments, specifically DWI and alcohol screening instruments, for community corrections. Additionally, the report discusses the methodology used to develop the pilot of the risk assessment tool and the key findings of the statistical analysis of the nearly 4,000 DWI offenders in the sample. The report concludes by providing future steps of the project and directions for policy and practice with regard to the DWI risk assessment tool.

      Preventing and Addressing Sexual Abuse in Tribal Detention Facilities: A Bulletin

      This brief bulletin describes the issue of corrections-based sexual abuse and provides an overview of the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and its implications for detention facilities in Indian Country. The bulletin also discusses specific strategies to enhance efforts to prevent and address sexual abuse in tribal detention settings through policy and practice.

      Preventing and Addressing Sexual Abuse in Tribal Detention Facilities: A Policy Development Guide

      This document provides guidance to administrators of tribal detention facilities on the key policy issues for the prevention, reduction, detection, and punishment of sexual abuse perpetrated on those under correctional supervision in Indian Country, including in jails, juvenile detention facilities, and police lock-ups. The guide provides a detailed discussion of corrections-based sexual abuse, including the physical, emotional, social, and legal implications of sexual abuse incidents for inmates, staff, agencies, and the community. The guide also describes the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and discusses the legal implications of this Act for facilities in Indian Country. Finally, the guide offers specific policy recommendations to help improve efforts to prevent and address sexual abuse in tribal detention settings, based on proposed National PREA Standards.

      Preventing and Responding to Corrections-Based Sexual Abuse: A Guide for Community Corrections Professionals

      This document provides guidance to community corrections officials regarding the prevention, reduction, detection, and punishment of sexual misconduct perpetrated on those under supervision of community corrections, whether that misconduct occurs within facilities or under community supervision. While an effective response to sexual assault issues requires attention from all levels of a community corrections agency, the purpose of this guide is to provide information to front-line community corrections professionals about corrections-based sexual assault, the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA), and the various roles those front-line professionals play in addressing this issue. This guide is designed to serve as a how-to book for community corrections officers, providing background information on the problem of corrections-based sexual abuse, the impact of victimization on offender behavior, and practical steps that front-line officers and supervisors can take to better prevent and respond to incidents of sexual violence.

      Probation and Parole's Growing Caseloads and Workload Allocation: Strategies for Managerial Decision Making

      The American Probation & Parole Association (APPA) has completed this report to offer baseline data to assist policymakers and administrators in confronting workload allocation issues. The report is not the final word in resolving workload decision making problems as caseloads and court-ordered conditions continue to escalate. Rather, this report is seen as a needed first step toward better understanding practitioner views toward workload allocation. This report provides findings from an APPA web-based information request, and benefited from a focus group of community corrections researchers, administrators, and practitioners. It is suggested that agencies with guidance from stakeholders in their jurisdictions must establish clearly defined organizational goals and an overall strategy to achieve, evaluate, and adjust such strategies.

      Promising Practices in Providing Pretrial Services Functions Within Probation Agencies

      As counties face significant budget crises, which are projected to last for years, jurisdictions are looking for ways to retain or implement evidence-based practices in a way that provides the most efficient use of criminal justice resources without sacrificing public safety. Housing pretrial services under the umbrella of a probation agency is one such method.The Pretrial Justice Institute (PJI) and the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) have partnered to assist jurisdictions with the effective and efficient support of a pretrial services function within a post-trial environment – the probation department. This Guide presents a host of strategies to work toward such a goal.

      Promising Victim-Related Practices Fact Sheet Series

      The American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), through funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), is pleased to release a series of eight fact sheets on topics related to crime victims and victims’ needs throughout the community corrections process. These fact sheets address a range of issues, including the role of community corrections in serving those victimized by crime, incorporating victim input into community supervision, victim notification, restitution collection and enforcement, family violence, and more. This series is designed to be used as a reference resource for professionals in probation, parole and other community justice settings as they work to enhance crime victim services.

      1.  The Role of Community Corrections in Victim Services
      2.  Collaboration and Partnerships for Victim Services in Community Corrections
      3.  Family Violence
      4.  Restitution and Other Legal Financial Obligations
      5.  Seeking Victim Input
      6.  Victim Information and Notification
      7.  Victim/Offender Programs
      8.  Workplace Violence

      Promising Victim-Related Practices in Probation and Parole Training Curriculum Package

      The American Probation and Parole Association (APPA), through funding from the Office for Victims of Crime, has developed a training curriculum package on Promising Victim-Related Strategies in Probation and Parole. This training curriculum, which includes an Instructor’s Manual, Participant Manual, and PowerPoint presentation slides, is designed to provide instruction to front-line probation and parole officers and first-line supervisors on such topics as: the impact of crime on victims; the role of community corrections in providing victim services; effectively communicating with crime victims, and enhancing restitution collection and management. The purpose of this training program is to build capacity and enhance victim services in community corrections settings by training probation, parole and other community justice professionals on how they can be more effective in their response to and provision of services to crime victims.

      Promising Victim-Related Practices and Strategies in Probation and Parole

      Identify the elements of exemplary victim-related probation and parole practices. This book will provide your agency with specific direction of the development and implementation of promising victim-related services and programs. This compendium is available to you at no cost from the Office for victims of Crime Resource Center (OVCRC) by calling 1-800-627-6872. Reference publication number NCJ 166606.

      Public Hearing on Victim Issues in Probation and Parole Recommendation Report

      This report is based on testimony provided during a public hearing on victim issues in probation and parole, sponsored by the Office from Victims of Crime (OVC), at the APPA Annual Training Institute in Washington, DC on August 18, 2010. The report summarizes comments from the panel of crime victims and survivors and provides a list of 10 recommendations for improving services to crime victims and survivors throughout the community corrections process.

      Recommendations for Tribal Probation when Supervising Domestic Violence Offenders

      This publication is designed to serve as a quick reference guide to community corrections staff in native communities regarding their supervision of domestic violence offenders. This guide is based on the Community Corrections’ Response to Domestic Violence: Guidelines for Practice, published by the American Parole and Probation Association, with funding from the Office on Violence Against Women.

      Reentry of Methamphetamine-Using Offenders into the Community: Identifying Key Strategies and Best Practices for Community Corrections

      The purpose of this report is to highlight the need for a coherent strategy for community corrections professionals to use when supervising MA-using populations in the community. This report offers the community corrections field baseline data to understand some of the obstacles and lessons learned regarding supervision of MA-using offenders. The data were gathered from a focus group and three technical assistance site visits with the underlying intention of identifying key strategies in dealing with MA-using offenders in the community. Policy and practice recommendations are also offered. These recommendations rely on the focus group, site visits, and emerging body of research literature on effective community supervision and successful substance abuse strategies.

      Responding to Stalking: A Guide for Community Corrections Officers

      This guide offers practical strategies probation and parole officers can use to enhance the safety of stalking victims through the effective community supervision of offenders who engage in stalking behavior. Although 3.4 million people are stalked annually in the United States, both the public and criminal justice officials may underestimate the seriousness of the crime and the determination of stalkers. Stalkers often continue their crimes after having been charged, prosecuted, convicted, and released. For that reason, community corrections officers who understand the nature and dynamics of stalking can play a pivotal role in preventing crimes and protecting victims from further harm. This guide describes effective approaches to the community supervision of stalkers, with a focus on enhancing victim safety, holding offenders accountable for their crimes, and promoting opportunities for behavioral change.

      Revisiting Megan's Law and Sex Offender Registration: Prevention or Problem

      Both convicted sex offenders and innocent citizens have experienced serious and negative consequences resulting from the implementation of the Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children and Sexually Violent Offender Registration Act, passed in 1994, which included national sex offender registration laws, and Megan's Law, passed in 1996, requiring public notification of sex offender release. This paper reviews the predictions made by the author in 1996 regarding these laws and the negative impact documented since their implementation.

      Risk-Needs Responsivity: Turning Principles into Practice for Tribal Probation Personnel

      There are 566 federally recognized tribes in the United States today (Federal Register, 2012). Each of these tribes differs in their crime demographics and justice system response to crime; however, regardless of each tribe’s diversity, each must have some kind of systemic response in place to address crime on the reservation. One piece of the justice system puzzle that tribes are recently focusing more attention on is the use of formalized probation to supervise individuals placed on community supervision.

      This bulletin will provide a brief introduction to the risk, need, and responsivity principles espoused in the evidenced-based principles for community supervision. Further, guidance will be provided on how tribal probation officers can incorporate the premise behind each principle into everyday practice.

      Sex Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation

      These training brochures explore both victimization and the criminal act of sexually exploiting another person for profit. With proper training, Probation, Parole and Pretrial Officers can begin to identify victims and help them receive the services they need to exit the life of prostitution. The more the community corrections professionals know about the warning signs of trafficking behavior, the better equipped they will be to preserve community safety and help rehabilitate probationers.

      Screening for Risk and Needs Using the Impaired Driving Assessment

      In 2008, the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration provided funding to the American Probation and Parole Association to develop an instrument that can increase the probability of identifying a DWI offender’s risk of engaging in future conduct of impaired driving, and to help determine the most effective community supervision that will reduce such risk. The result of this project was the Impaired Driving Assessment (IDA). In addition to its underlying objectives, the IDA provides preliminary guidelines for service needs, estimates the level of responsivity of clients to supervision and treatment services, and identifies the degree to which the client’s impaired-driving has jeopardized traffic and public safety. This report describes the development, research, and practical application of the IDA.

      State Court Administrator’s Office – Colorado Division of Probation Services

      This document summarizes the technical assistance provided to the Colorado State Court Administrator’s Office, Division of Probation Services; Colorado is one of the three sites chosen to receive technical assistance by the American Probation & Parole Association, with funding from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, through a project entitled Reentry of Methamphetamine Addicted Offenders (2006-RE-CX-K102). Colorado’s technical assistance request indicated a need to “develop more appropriate supervision plans for offenders and be able to effectively increase community safety and reduce recidivism.” The application also noted that substance abuse treatment services and meth-specific services were lacking in rural and mountain areas throughout the state.

      South Dakota Intensive Methamphetamine (IMT) Program

      This document summarizes the technical assistance provided to the Intensive Methamphetamine Treatment (IMT) program in South Dakota; one of the three sites chosen to receive technical assistance by the American Probation & Parole Association, with funding from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, U.S. Department of Justice, through a project entitled Reentry of Methamphetamine Addicted Offenders. The IMT program presents a unique organizational and operating structure encompassing the South Dakota Department of Corrections, the Division of Pardons and Paroles, Halfway Houses, and the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. These organizations have come together under this program to deliver comprehensive and targeted reentry programming for women offenders identified as having a methamphetamine abuse/dependence diagnosis.

      Successful Transition and Reentry for Safer Communities: A Call to Action for Parole

      Authors: Peggy Burke, Michael Tonry

      The release each year of hundreds of thousands of people from prison to communities all across America has established offender reentry as a high profile issue on national and state policy agendas. The urgency of this call to action stems from several critical factors. First, a major proportion of offenders failing upon reentry – and returning to prison – are doing so as a result of parole violations and revocations. Second, one of the most basic and compelling lessons emerging form the research about enhancing successful reentry is the importance of targeting resources to higher risk offenders according to needs relating to their criminality. Third, paroling authorities are well positioned to reduce the severe fragmentation that hampers criminal justice system efforts. Lastly, this is an urgent call to action because the window of opportunity will not remain open indefinitely.

      Strategically Monitoring Sex Offenders: Accessing Community Corrections' Resources to Enhance Law Enforcement Capabilities

      Supervision of Women Defendants and Offenders in the Community

      The use of gender-responsive strategies with women involved in the community corrections system is explained. Sections comprising this report are: what community corrections is; what gender-responsiveness for women offenders in community corrections is; definition of gender-responsiveness for women in the criminal justice system; summary of gender-responsive research; characteristics of women offenders in the criminal justice system (e.g., types of offenses, substance abuse, health, children and marital status, education and employment, and victimization and trauma); theoretical perspectives on womens criminal behavior -- pathways theory, relational theory, trauma theory, and addiction theory; comprehensive treatment model for issues critical to women; guiding principles for implementing gender-responsive strategies for women offenders; the three Rs for case planning; essential services of comprehensive treatment programs for women offenders; challenges in implementing gender-responsive strategies; overcoming challenges; and community corrections responsibility to women offenders.

      Ten Things Probation and Parole Agencies Can Do to Commemorate Domestic Violence Awareness Month in October 2014

      October is Domestic Violence Awareness Month. In recognition of this important campaign, the APPA Victim Issues Committee released “Ten Things Probation and Parole Agencies Can Do to Commemorate Domestic Violence Awareness Month in October 2014.” In addition to the top ten things that agencies and officers can do to commemorate the month, there is a sample victim impact statement and a handout related to documenting losses for victim restitution.

      The Three "R"s of Reentry

      Reparative Justice. Relationships. Responsibility.

      Currently there is a significant amount of attention focused on the large number of offenders who are being released from prison to communities across the country. Leadership and support from the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs have created opportunities to discuss, plan and implement new strategies to more effectively deal with offenders who are going home.

      This white paper is intended to be just that: an opportunity to create a dialogue about offender reentry from a victim, family, and harm centered perspective.

      Tracking Sex Offenders with Electronic Monitoring Technology: Implications and Practical Uses for Law Enforcement

      APPA provided assistance to the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) to produce these documents: "Strategically Monitoring Sex Offenders: Accessing Community Corrections' Resources to Enhance Law Enforcement Capabilities" is a publication that identifies tools and information used by correctional agencies that can benefit law enforcement agencies’ ability to monitor and track sex offenders.

      "Tracking Sex Offenders with Electronic Monitoring Technology: Implications and Practical Uses for Law Enforcement" defines and provides examples of electronic monitoring technology, discusses law enforcement involvement with electronic monitoring technology, outlines the benefits and concerns of using this technology, and highlights key considerations for the law enforcement community.

      Trends in Probation and Parole in the States

      by Bill Burrell (reproduced with permission from the Council of State Governments, Book of the States, 2005.)

      Probation and parole play an essential and critical role in the administration of both criminal and juvenile justice. They supervise the vast majority of offenders, and their caseloads continue to grow. In response to the pressures of increased workload, static or declining budgets, and limited public and political support, six strategic trends have emerged. These trends characterize the efforts of probation and parole to meet their mandates and improve their effectiveness. This article explains and defines the six trends in a straight-forward and easy to read format for anyone needing a good overview of the current status of community corrections in the United States.

      Tribal Law and Order Act: Enhanced Sentencing Authority: Tribal Code Development Considerations & Quick Reference Overview & Checklist

      This publication provides background information on how the Tribal Law & Order Act of 2010 amended the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1978 as well as a quick-reference checklist to aide jurisdictions as they initiate discussions around or begin planning for implementation of this new authority. Within this publication are two functional tools jurisdictions can use to guide discussions and/or implementation processes:

      Quick-reference overview of statutory & due process requirements. This Overview is provided to assist tribal teams, committees or individuals by highlighting the primary statutory requirements of the TLOA. The Overview can be used as a guide to assess tribal readiness and to provide tribes with necessary statutory references pertinent to enhanced sentencing provision of TLOA.

      Quick-reference checklist for tribal code review, amendment & development. This Checklist is provided to assist tribal teams, committees or individuals by providing a list of the primary code considerations that must be considered and/or incorporated prior to the tribe imposing enhanced sentences. The Checklist can be used as a guide during the tribal code review, amendment and development process.

      A Tribal Probation Officer’s Guide to Working with Victims

      The work of tribal probation officers (TPOs) is essential in promoting individual and community safety. Victims and survivors are members of the tribal community whose lives are often irrevocably harmed and changed by crime. While victims are not the primary client for TPOs, they are in a unique position to provide them with critical information and link them with services. This bulletin is designed to provide TPOs with a brief overview of victims’ rights, tips to help coordinate and improve the delivery of victim services, and information about the varied services available to victims of crime.

      Tribal Probation: An Overview for Tribal Court Judges

      There is great variation among tribes in terms of the amount of discretion that tribal court judges have when imposing sentences and sentencing conditions. The use of probation in tribal jurisdictions is a growing trend, as the community supervision of offenders has become a desirable alternative to address the problems of jail overcrowding, monitor conditions of supervision, enforce interventions to hold offenders accountable, address offenders’ substance abuse issues, help change offenders’ behavior, and protect the public. Tribal court judges have the capacity to initiate, develop, and grow a successful community supervision/probation program. To do so, however, it is essential for tribal court judges to have a clear understanding of what community supervision is and what probation officers are charged with doing so they can take full advantage of the vast amount of information and services probation officers can offer. This article is designed to provide tribal court judges with a general understanding of community supervision and how it can benefit tribal justice systems.

      Using Family Mapping Tools to Enhance Outcomes for Tribal Members Under Community Supervision

      The role that families play in the lives of tribal members on community supervision—both positive and negative—is important to understand. This fact sheet provides an overview of two mapping tools—genograms and ecomaps—that help people visualize the strengths and resources within families and the connections families have to their community. It also provides ideas for how tribal probation officers can incorporate these simple tools into their work.

      Underage Drinking: Intervention Principles and Practice Guidelines for Community Corrections

      The community corrections field, specifically probation and diversion, performs an important role in the EUDL program in both prevention and intervention when dealing with underage drinking offenders. Community corrections professionals can work closely with judges, attorneys, and other justice professionals to handle each underage drinking case in the most effective and appropriate fashion. Community corrections professionals can also work with community-based groups in efforts to prevent underage drinking through community-wide initiatives that reach both parents and youth. With funding and support from OJJDP, the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) has partnered with the Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) to develop a set of guiding principles, developed from evidence-based practices, to assist community corrections in responding more effectively to underage drinking offenders.

      The Victim's Role in Offender Reentry: A Community Response Manual

      Offers practical suggestions regarding how reentry partners can become involved in assisting victims whose offenders are released, or preparing to be released, to the community.

      Voice of the Victim: A Perspectives Spotlight Issue

      With funding from the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC), APPA developed this special issue of its quarterly journal, Perspectives, to focus on topics specific to victim issues and services within community corrections. Topics addressed in this issue include, but are not necessarily limited to, reentry, victim awareness, victim impact, restitution, corrections-based sexual assault, technology and victim issues, and considerations for juvenile justice. A guest editorial from crime victim on her personal experience and recommendations for the field is also included.

      Working with Female DWI/DUI Justice-Involved Individuals: A Supervision Guide

      This Guide highlights some of the available research regarding female-responsive practices and strategies that can help bring about pro-social changes in women who are placed on community supervision for Driving While Intoxicated/Driving Under the Influence (DWI/DUI). It was developed to help practitioners make informed decisions and use effective supervision strategies.

      This Guide was developed and published by the American Probation and Parole Association (APPA) with support from the Century Council.